Lab Exercise 8: Classes
The purpose of this lab is to give you practice in creating your own classes. In particular, we will convert both the lsystem and the interpreter modules into classes. Ultimately, this will make it easier to build a more complex system.
If you have not already done so, take a look at the book 'The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants', which is the basis for this series of lab exercises. You can download the entire book from the algorithmic botany site
The other piece we'll be implementing this week is handling multi-rule L-systems. Adding this capability will enable you to draw more complex L-system structures.
Most of the exercises in lab will involve building up an L-system class. This week it will be important for you to use the method names provided. The next several labs will expect the L-system and Interpreter classes to have certain methods with particular names.
- Create a new working folder and a new lsystem.py file. Label this one as version 2. The lsystem.py file will hold the Lsystem class and a test function for it.
Begin a class called Lsystem. A class has a simple structure. It
begins with the class declaration, and all methods are indented
relative to the class definition, similar to a function.
Then we define the __init__() method (function), which is executed when a Lsystem object is created. The init method should set up the fields of a class and give them reasonable initial values. Init methods often take optional arguments. You can make an argument optional by assigning a value to it in the argument list of the function declaration. For example, the following function has two arguments, the second of which is optional with a default value of 5.
def boo( a, b = 5 ): print a, " ", b
The Lsystem init function should have two arguments: self, and an optional filename. If the function receives a filename, it should read Lsystem information from the file by calling the read method of self (which you'll create below), passing the filename as the argument.
def __init__(self, filename=None):
The Lsystem init should create two fields: base and rules. The field base should be initialized to the empty string. The field rules should be initialized to an empty list. To create a field of a class, put the prefix self. in front of the name of the field and assign something to it. The line of code below creates the field base and assigns it the empty string.
self.base = ''
Here is the template for the init function
def __init__( self, filename = None ): # assign to the field base, the empty string # assign to the field rules, the empty list # if the filename variable is not equal to None # call the read method of self with filename as the argument
- Create mutator and accessor methods for the base string: setBase(self, newbase), getBase(self). The setBase function should assign the new base string to the base field of self. The getBase function should return the base field of self.
- Create an accessor method getRule(self, index) that returns the specified single rule from the rules field of self. Then create the method addRule(self, newrule), which should add a copy of newrule to the rules field of self. Look at the version 1 lsystem if you need to remember how to write the method.
Create a read(self, filename) method that opens the file, reads in the
Lsystem information, resets the base and rules fields of self, and
then store the information from the file in the appropriate fields
(you can use the accessors self.setBase and self.addRule to do that).
You can copy and paste the function code from the version 1 lsystem.py
file, but it will require some modification. For example, you don't
need to create a new Lsystem (self already exists) and you'll need to
use the new accessor methods.
You can use the following template
def read( self, filename ): # assign to a variable (e.g. fp) the file object created with filename in read mode # assign to a variable (e.g. lines) the list of lines in the file # call the close method of the file # for each element in the lines list # assign to a variable (e.g. words) the loop variable split on spaces # if the first item in words is equal to the string 'base' # call the setBase method of self with the new base string # else if the first item in words is equal to the string 'rule' # call the addRule method of self with the new rule
Once you are done with all of the above steps, download and run this test function. It should nicely print out a single rule L-system read from a file and then print out a second L-system created in the test program.
In order to handle multiple rules, we need to write our own replace
method for an L-system. The algorithm template is below. We scan
through the string, and for each character we test if there is a rule.
If a rule exists, we add the replacement to a new string, otherwise we
add the character itself to the new string.
def replace(self, istring): # assign to a local variable (e.g. tstring) the empty string # for each character c in the input string (istring) # set a local variable (e.g. found) to False # for each rule in the rules field of self # if the symbol in the rule is equal to the character # add to tstring the replacement from the rule # set found to True # break # if not found # add to tstring the character c # return tstring
Create a buildString(self, iterations) function. It will be almost
identical to the buildString function from version 1. The code
outline is below.
def buildString(self, iterations): # assign to a local variable (e.g. nstring) the base field of self # for the number of iterations # assign to nstring the result of calling the replace method of self # return nstring
Copy the following main function and put it at the bottom of your
Lsystem class file. Call it like we did last week.
python lsystem.py systemA1.txt 3 stra
Be sure to put an import sys at the top of your file.
def main(argv): if len(argv) < 4: print 'Usage: lsystem.py <filename> <iterations> <output file>' exit() filename = argv iterations = int(argv) outfile = argv lsys = Lsystem() lsys.read( filename ) print lsys print lsys.getBase() print lsys.getRule(0) lstr = lsys.buildString( iterations ) fp = file( outfile, 'w' ) fp.write(lstr) fp.close() return if __name__ == "__main__": main(sys.argv)
You can download and run the file on any of the following examples. Systems C through G require multiple rules.
Create a new file called interpeter.py. Label it as version 2.
You'll want to import the turtle package, and probably the random and
sys packages as well. Begin the class definition for an Interpreter
Create an __init__ method with the definition below. The init should
call turtle.setup(width = dx, height = dy ) and then set the tracer to
False (if you wish).
def __init__(self, dx = 800, dy = 800): # call turtle.setup # set the turtle tracer to false (optional)
Create a drawString method for the Interpreter class. Except for the
actual function definition, you can copy and paste it from the version
1 interpreter.py, indenting it to be within the class. The new method
definition just needs self as the first argument.
def drawString(self, dstring, distance, angle):
- Copy the hold function and paste it into your class. Again, you just need to indent the function so it is part of the class block and add self as the first argument to the definition.
One of the goals of building the interpreter is to encapsulate all of
the turtle commands. Therefore, we need to make some interpreter
methods that let us place and orient the turtle and set its color.
Add the following methods to your interpreter class.
- def place(self, xpos, ypos, angle=None): - the method should pick up the pen, place the turtle at location (xpos, ypos), orient the turtle if the angle argument is not None, and then put down the pen.
- def orient(self, angle): - the method should set the turtle's heading to the given angle.
- def goto(self, xpos, ypos): - the method should pick up the turtle, send the turtle to (xpos, ypos) and then put the pen down.
- def color(self, c): - the method should call turtle.color() to set the turtle's color to the given argument.
- def width(self, w): - the method should call turtle.width() set the turtle's width to the given argument.
- Download the test function and run it using one of the 2-rule lsystems as an argument (e.g. systemC.txt, systemD.txt, or systemF.txt).
Once you have finished the lab, go ahead and get started on project 8.