Lab Exercise 10: Not Quite Straight Lines
The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to the concept of non-photorealistic rendering [NPR] and give you some practice with designing modifications to your current system to make NPR easy to implement.
If you're interested in seeing more examples of NPR, check out the NPR resources page.
The other piece we'll be implementing this week is how to handle parameterized L-systems. These will give us much more flexibility in defining shapes and complex L-system objects. We'll continue to use material from the ABOP book.
In lab today we'll be editing the Shape class and the TurtleInterpreter class to implement one version of NPR that does a reasonable job of simulating a crayon sketch. The goal is to make the change in such a way that all of the classes you've developed so far will work without modification. The design choice in our existing system that made it possible to do this was the use of the TurtleInterpreter class to handle all of the actual drawing commands.
To implement various NPR methods, we're going to enable the TurtleInterpreter class to execute the 'F' case in different ways. We'll create a field in the TurtleInterpreter class that holds the current style and then draw the line corresponding to the 'F' symbol differently, depending on the style field.
To give the capability to select styles to the Shape objects, we'll also add a style field to the Shape class so different objects can draw themselves using different styles.
- Create a new Project10 folder. Copy your lsystem.py, turtle_interpreter.py, and shapes.py files from your prior assignment (version 3). This week we are writing version 4 of all three files. Label them with a comment as as version 4.
Open your turtle interpreter file. In the TurtleInterpreter class
__init__ function, add two fields to the object called style and
jitterSigma. Give the style field the value 'normal' and the
jitterSigma field the value 2. Be sure to put these assignments before
the test of the initialized field of the class.
Note that we will not be adding parameters to __init__ for jitterSigma or style. Instead, we will rely only on the mutator methods to change their values to anything other than the defaults. Our rationale is that we don't want too many parameters in __init__. Looking forward, we realize there will be additional fields added to the TurtleInterpreter, and we don't want to add parameters for every single field. So we won't add them for these fields.
- In the TurtleInterpreter class, create a mutator method def setStyle(self, s) that assigns the style field the value of the parameter s. Then create a mutator method def setJitter(self, j) that assigns the jitterSigma field the value of the parameter j.
In the TurtleInterpreter class, create a method def forward(self,
distance) that implements the following algorithm.
def forward(self, distance): # if self.style is 'normal' # have the turtle go foward by distance # else if self.style is 'jitter' # assign to x0 and y0 the result of turtle.position() # pick up the turtle # have the turtle go forward by distance # assign to xf and yf the result of turtle.position() # assign to curwidth the result of turtle.width() # assign to jx the result of random.gauss(0, self.jitterSigma) # assign to jy the result of random.gauss(0, self.jitterSigma) # assign to kx the result of random.gauss(0, self.jitterSigma) # assign to ky the result of random.gauss(0, self.jitterSigma) # set the turtle width to (curwidth + random.randint(0, 2)) # have the turtle go to (x0 + jx, y0 + jy) # put the turtle down # have the turtle go to (xf + kx, yf + ky) # pick up the turtle # have the turtle go to (xf, yf) # set the turtle width to curwidth # put the turtle down
- Once you have completed the above function, edit your 'F' case in drawString so that it calls self.forward(distance) instead of turtle.forward(distance). Then download the following test function and try it out.
- Open your shapes.py file. In the Shape class, update your __init__ method to add fields for the style, jitterSigma, and line width. Then make mutators called setStyle, setJitter, and setWidth to enable a programmer to set those values. Then edit the draw method so that it calls the turtle interpreter's setStyle, setJitter, and width methods before calling drawString, just like it currently does with color. Then run the following test function.
Go back to your turtle_interpreter.py file. Now we're going to modify the
drawString function to handle parameters on symbols. We're going to
represent parameters as a number inside parentheses in front of
the symbol it modifies. The string
FF(120)+F(60)+F(60)+F(120)+, for example, should draw a
trapezoid by modifying the left turns (+ symbols).
There are notes that talk about the strategy for making this function work. Please read them.
At the top of the drawString method, initialize three local variables along with your stack and colorstack.
# assign to modstring the empty string # assign to modval the value None # assign to modgrab the value False
At the beginning of the main for loop over the input string, put the following conditional statement, separate from the main one already there. This section handles modifiers separately from symbols.
# if c is '(' # assign to modstring the empty string # assign to modgrab the value True # continue # else if c is ')' # assign to modval the result of casting modstring to a float # assign to modgrab False # continue # else if modgrab (is True) # add to modstring the character c # continue
Edit your 'F' case so it looks like the following.
# if modval is None # call self.forward with the argument distance # else # call self.forward with the argument distance * modval
Edit your '+', '-', and '!' cases so they all do their normal action if modval is None, but they use modval as the argument to turtle.left, turtle.right, or turtle.width, respectively, if it is not None. If you don't have a case for '!', make one now that follows the logic below.
# if c is '!' # if modval is None # assign to w the result of calling turtle.width() # if w is greater than 1 # call turtle.width with w-1 as the argument # else # call turtle.width with modval as the argument
Finally, assign to modval the value None at the end of the for loop over the input string. This should be inside the for loop, but outside of the big if-else structure. It is important that this is indented properly.
When you are done, run the following test file.
The goal of this last change is to enable L-system files of the form:
base (100)F rule (x)F (x)F[!+(x*0.67)F][!-(x*0.67)F]
The above should replace a trunk with a trunk and two branches, where the branches are shorter than the trunk. The only variable we're going to allow is x.
We will be supplying the code for these changes.
Open your lsystem.py file and delete the contents of your replace function. Then replace it with the following code.
def replace(self, istring): """ Replace all characters in the istring with strings from the right-hand side of the appropriate rule. This version handles parameterized rules. """ tstring = '' parstring = '' parval = None pargrab = False for c in istring: if c == '(': # put us into number-parsing-mode pargrab = True parstring = '' continue # elif the character is ) elif c == ')': # put us out of number-parsing-mode pargrab = False parval = float(parstring) continue # elif we are in number-parsing-mode elif pargrab: # add this character to the number string parstring += c continue if parval != None: key = '(x)' + c if key in self.rules: replacement = random.choice(self.rules[key]) tstring += self.substitute( replacement, parval ) else: if c in self.rules: replacement = random.choice(self.rules[c]) tstring += self.insertmod( replacement, parstring, c ) else: tstring += '(' + parstring + ')' + c parval = None else: if c in self.rules: tstring += random.choice(self.rules[c]) else: tstring += c return tstring
Copy the following two methods, substitute and
insertmod into your Lsystem class. Make sure to run Detab on
the file before continuing.
def substitute(self, sequence, value ): """ given: a sequence of parameterized symbols using expressions of the variable x and a value for x substitute the value for x and evaluate the expressions """ expr = '' exprgrab = False outsequence = '' for c in sequence: # parameter expression starts if c == '(': # set the state variable to True (grabbing the expression) exprgrab = True expr = '' continue # parameter expression ends elif c == ')': exprgrab = False # create a function out of the expression lambdafunc = eval( 'lambda x: ' + expr ) # execute the function and put the result in a (string) newpar = '(' + str( lambdafunc( value ) ) + ')' outsequence += newpar # grabbing an expression elif exprgrab: expr += c # not grabbing an expression and not a parenthesis else: outsequence += c return outsequence def insertmod(self, sequence, modstring, symbol): """ given: a sequence, a parameter string, a symbol inserts the parameter, with parentheses, before each instance of the symbol in the sequence """ tstring = '' for c in sequence: if c == symbol: # add the parameter string in parentheses tstring += '(' + modstring + ')' tstring += c return tstring
The next step is to test the new code with one of the L-systems
given below. These L-systems have many interesting features. To
understand them better, see these
notes. In particular they tells us that the f symbol should
make the turtle move forward, just like the F symbol does.
So, as a mini-step, add support to drawString for the f symbol.
Run the final test function using one of the L-systems given above. E.g, you can run it with sysTree.txt, 3 iterations, a distance of 3, and an angle of 22.5.
- As a final test to show what is possible, try out this test function. It requires your turtle_interpreter.py, shapes.py, and tree.py to generate the scene. Run it with sysTree2.txt or sysTree3.txt as the command-line argument.
When you are done with the lab exercises, you may begin the project.